business model 商业模式
A reader recently wrote to me, “If it can’t be used for evil, it’s not a superpower.” He’s right. And under this definition, habit design is indeed a super power. If used for good, habits can enhance people’s lives with entertaining, and even healthful, routines. If used to exploit, habits can turn into wasteful addictions.
Aza Raskin from the Centre for Humane Technology said social media companies deliberately use addictive technology in their apps in order to lure us in to spending as much time on their platforms as possible.
Sandy Parakilas, who was a platform operations manager at Facebook in 2011 and 2012, said there was definitely an awareness that Facebook was habit-forming when he worked at the company.
Nir Eyal is the author of Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products and blogs about the psychology of products at NirAndFar.com. For more insights on using psychology to change behavior, join his newsletter and receive a free workbook.
桑迪·帕拉吉拉斯在 2011年和 2012年间担任脸书的平台运营经理，他说他在任期间，公司内部确实意识到脸书容易让用户上瘾。
But unlike a sales funnel, which has a set endpoint, the investment phase isn’t about consumers opening up their wallets and moving on with their day. The investment implies an action that improves the service for the next go-around. Inviting friends, stating preferences, building virtual assets, and learning to use new features are all commitments that improve the service for the user. These investments can be leveraged to make the trigger more engaging, the action easier, and the reward more exciting with every pass through the Hook.
endless scroll 无限下拉滚动
After the trigger comes the intended action. Here, companies leverage two pulleys of human behavior: motivation and ability. To increase the odds of a user taking the intended action, the behavior designer makes the action as easy as possible, while simultaneously boosting the user’s motivation. This phase of the Hook draws on the art and science of usability design to ensure that the user acts the way the designer intends.
For example, suppose Barbra, a young woman in Pennsylvania, happens to see a photo in her Facebook newsfeed taken by a family member from a rural part of the state. It’s a lovely photo, and since she’s planning a trip there with her brother Johnny, the trigger intrigues her.
The trigger is the actuator of a behavior — the spark plug in the Hook model. Triggers come in two types: external and internal. Habit-forming technologies start by alerting users with external triggers like an email, a link on a website, or the app icon on a phone. By cycling continuously through these hooks, users begin to form associations with internal triggers, which become attached to existing behaviors and emotions. Soon users are internally triggered every time they feel a certain way. The internal trigger becomes part of their routine behavior, and the habit is formed.
Habit-forming technology creates associations with “internal triggers,” which cue users without the need for marketing, messaging, or other external stimuli.
人文技术中心（Centre for Humane Technology）的阿扎·拉斯金说，社交媒体公司故意在他们的应用程序中使用让人上瘾的技术，以吸引我们尽可能多地呆在他们的平台上。
Consumers must understand how habit-forming technology works to prevent unwanted manipulation while still enjoying the benefits of these innovations.
The last phase of the Hook is where the user is asked to do bit of work. This phase has two goals as far as the behavior engineer is concerned. The first is to increase the odds that the user will make another pass through the Hook when presented with the next trigger. Second, now that the user’s brain is swimming in dopamine from the anticipation of reward in the previous phase, it’s time to pay some bills. The investment generally comes in the form of asking the user to give some combination of time, data, effort, social capital, or money.
美国硅谷的内部人士告诉 BBC ，社交媒体公司故意让用户沉迷于他们的产品以从中获取经济利益。
A company that forms strong user habits enjoys several benefits to its bottom line. For one, it creates associations with “internal triggers” in users’ minds. That is to say, users come to the site without any external prompting. Instead of relying on expensive marketing or worrying about differentiation, habit-forming companies get users to cue themselves to action by attaching their services to the users’ daily routines and emotions. A cemented habit is when users unconsciously think, I’m bored, and Facebook instantly comes to mind. They think, I wonder what’s going on in the world? and before rational thought kicks in, Twitter is the answer. The first-to-mind solution wins.
Aza Raskin invented the endless scroll – the app feature that means you don't have to click to get to the next page and can keep scrolling for far longer than maybe necessary or healthy.
Using the example of Barbra, with a click on the interesting picture in her newsfeed, she’s taken to a website she’s never been to before called Pinterest. Once she’s done the intended action (in this case, clicking on the photo), she’s dazzled by what she sees next.
Facebook and Instagram have told the BBC that their apps are designed to bring people together and that they never set out to create addictive products.
But, like it or not, habit-forming technology is already here. The fact that we have greater access to the web through our various devices also gives companies greater access to us. As companies combine this greater access with the ability to collect and process our data at higher speeds than ever before, we’re faced with a future where everything becomes more addictive. This trinity of access, data, and speed creates new opportunities for habit-forming technologies to hook users. Companies need to know how to harness the power of Hooks to improve people’s lives, while consumers need to understand the mechanics of behavior engineering to protect themselves from unwanted manipulation.
Type the name of almost any successful consumer web company into your search bar and add the word “addict” after it. Go ahead, I’ll wait. Try “Facebook addict” or “Twitter addict” or even “Pinterest addict,” and you’ll soon get a slew of results from hooked users and observers deriding the narcotic-like properties of these sites. How is it that these companies, producing little more than bits of code displayed on a screen, can seemingly control users’ minds? Why are these sites so addictive, and what does their power mean for the future of the web?